Open System, Closed System, And Isolated Systems [Thermodynamic Systems]

A system is a collection of matter, atoms, molecules, particles, or anything that can be quantified and measurable—for example, water in a bottle or fuel in the engine.

And a thermodynamic system is a collection of anything whose thermodynamic properties are of interest. There are different thermodynamic systems like open system, closed system, and isolated system. So in this article, we will learn about all those different types of thermodynamic systems.

But before we learn about the types of thermodynamic systems, we should have a broad idea about a thermodynamic system and the different elements that contribute to the thermodynamic system.

What Is a Thermodynamic System?

A thermodynamic system is a collection of matter and/or radiation confined in space by a wall with defined permeability that separates it from the surroundings. The surroundings may include other thermodynamic systems or non-thermodynamic systems.

thermodynamic system : Open system, closed system, isolated system

A thermodynamic system consists of the following elements.

  • System
  • Boundary
  • Surroundings
  • Universe

We already learned about systems. Everything outside of the system is called surroundings, and the wall that separates the system from the surroundings is called the boundary.

System

A system is where all thermodynamic process takes place and where you can analyze the matter or particle. The system is the region where you can measure the matter or properties.

For example, If you keep water in a bottle then this is called a system

Boundary

A boundary is a natural or imaginary surface that separates the system from the surroundings. A boundary can be fixed or movable, and the shape and size of the boundary depend on the size of the system.

For Example, if you keep water in a bottle, then the bottle is the boundary.

Sorroundings

Everything external to the system is called surrounding. For example, if you keep a water bottle inside a car, then the car’s interior can be termed as surroundings.

Universe

Everything external to the surroundings is called the universe. For example, if you keep a water bottle in a car, then the outer space of the car is the universe.

Types Of Thermodynamic System

Following are the types of thermodynamic systems.

  • Open system
  • Closed system
  • Isolated system

Open System

An open system is something where the transfer of mass and energy can take place. When we talk about energy, in thermodynamics, it is heat energy.

thermodynamic system : Open system, closed system, isolated system
Open System

Properties Of Open System

  • Transfer of mass is possible
  • Transfer of heat energy is possible
  • An open system is open to its surroundings

Example of Open System

  • Boiling water in a pan
  • Water in a bottle with its cap open
  • Internal combustion engine
  • Compressors
  • Turbines
  • Water pumps
  • Boilers

Closed System

A closed system is a thermodynamic system where the energy transfer can occur, but the mass can not be transferred. The energy can be transferred in the form of heat or work.

thermodynamic system : Open system, closed system, isolated system

Properties Of Closed System

  • Transfer of energy in the form of heat or work is possible
  • Absolutely no transfer of mass
  • The physical boundary is required for a closed system.

Example Of Closed System

  • The piston in a cylinder
  • Pressure cooker
  • Oxygen cylinders
  • Gas cylinders
  • Sealed water bottles

Isolated System

In isolated system neither the mass or the energy transfer can take place. So it is totally separated from the surroundings.

thermodynamic system: Open system, closed system, isolated system

Properties Of Isolated System

  • No mass transfer
  • No energy transfer
  • No interaction with the surroundings

Example Of Isolated System

  • Thermos
  • Insulated water heaters
  • Our universe

Difference Between Open System, Closed System And Isolated System

thermodynamic system : Open system, closed system, isolated system
Open SystemClosed SystemIsolated System
Mass transfer is possibleMass transfer is not possibleMass transfer is not possible
Energy transfer is possibleEnergy transfer is possibleEnergy transfer is not possible
Open boundaryClosed boundaryClosed boundary
Interact with the surroundingsInteract with the sorroundingsNo interaction with the surroundings

Conclusion: Open System, Closed System And Isolated System

I hope you got a fair idea about different thermodynamic systems and the properties of it. If you still have any questions or queries, please don’t hesitate to write in the comment system, and I will be happy to assist.

You may also like to read: Intensive Properties and Extensive Properties

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) On Thermodynamic Systems

What is An Open system?

A thermodynamic closed system is a collection of matter, molecules, or particles from where both mass and energy transfer can take place.

What Is A Closed System?

A thermodynamic open system is a collection of matter, molecules or particles from where no mass transfer can take place, but energy transfer can happen in the form of heat or work

What Is An Isolated System?

A thermodynamic isolated system is a collection of matter, molecules, or particles from where neither mass nor energy transfer can take place.

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