Different Types Of Springs: Definition, Types and Applications [PDF]

types of springs

Springs are one of the key components of products where motion is involved. Springs stores mechanical energy and release it whenever it is required. Almost every product has springs nowadays. Our day to day products like watches, cellphones use different types of springs. So in this article lets talk about different types of springs, its application advantages and disadvantages.

At the end of this article, there is an option for you to download the types of springs pdf copy for your future reference.

What is a Spring

Spring is a mechanical component which stores mechanical energy when force is applied and release that energy when the load is removed. Spring goes back to its original shape when the load is removed.

Function of springs

  • To store energy and release when required
  • To return a component to the original position after the load is withdrawn.
  • To reduce shock, impact and vibration among moving parts
  • Reduce the effect of impact loading
  • Control the motion as in the case with CAM and follower
  • To maintain electrical continuity
  • To counterbalance weight

Different types of springs and their applications

Below is the list of different types of springs that most of the industry uses. There are mainly three types of springs which are further categorized into different subcategories.

  • Helical Spring
  • Leaf Springs
  • Disc springs

Helical Spring

Helical springs are made of wires which are coiled into a helix. The cross-section of the wire can be circular, rectangular or square. Helical Springs are the widely used type of spring in industries.

helical spring
Helical Springs

Types of helical spring

Helical Spring is further classified into below four types of springs.

  • Compression Spring
  • Tension spring
  • Torsion spring
  • Spiral spring
Compression Spring

Compression springs are kind of open-coil helical spring which offer resistance to axial compression load. Usually, compression springs are coiled at constant diameter, but variable diameter shape like conical spring is also very widely used. Compression springs are used commonly in the following applications.

  • Suspension systems
  • Compressor mounting
  • Writing pen
types of spring
Compression Spring ( Credit : Amazon)
Tension Spring

Tension spring is kind of closed coil helical springs which facilitate tension when external pull force is applied up to a certain length. The main purpose of tension spring is to allow external forces to create tension, stores the energy and use that energy to revert back the spring to its original shape which force is removed. Tension springs are used in the following applications.

  • Weighing machine
  • Dishwasher door
  • Spring-loaded jaw pliers
types of springs
Tension Springs ( Credit : Indiamart)
Torsion Spring

Torsion springs are a type of helical springs that exerts twisting or rotary force. In other words, torsion spring stores rotational energy. The two ends of the torsion springs are attached to two different components, and the spring is responsible to keep both parts at a certain angle irrespective of any other external force.

For example, torsion spring is commonly used in door hinge, when you try to open the door, the torsion spring stores that rotational force. When you release the door, torsion spring utilizes that rotational energy to bring back the door to its original position. Common application of torsion spring is as follows.

  • Door Hinge
  • Clipboards
  • Safety Pins
types of springs
Torsion Spring ( Credit : Amazon )
Spiral Spring

Spiral springs are a type of helical springs where rectangular metal strips are coiled into a flat spiral. Spiral springs are designed to store and release a constant amount of rotational force. Due to this special property of the constant amount of rotational force, it is widely used in mechanical watches. Applications of spiral watches are as below.

  • Watch
  • Toy
  • Seat recliner
types of springs
Spiral Spring ( Credit : Amazon )

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Leaf Springs

Leafs spring uses a different size of rectangular metal plates ( Called Leaves) sandwiched together. Usually, those metal plates are bolted and then clamped. It is also known as laminated or carriage spring due to its application in heavy vehicles.

types of spring
Leaf Spring ( Credit : Wikipedia )

Types of Leaf spring

There are different types of leaf spring available. Below is the list of those types of leaf springs.

  • Elliptical Leaf spring
  • Semi elliptical leaf spring
  • Quarter elliptical leaf spring
  • Three-quarter elliptical leaf spring
  • Transverse leaf spring

Application of leaf springs

  • Car suspension system
  • Railway carriage suspension system
  • Construction vehicles

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Disk Spring

Disk spring uses convex metal disk stacked together to absorb a high amount of load at a very small space. Often disk springs are used as a single plate or multiple disks stacked together in a series or in parallel. Something they are stacked with a mix of series and parallel.

One of the advantages of disk spring is that it can take a high amount of force with a short spring length and minimal movement when compressed. Disk springs are also called Belleville spring.

disk spring
Disk Spring ( Credit : eBay )

Types of disk spring

Below are the types of disk springs commonly used in industries.

  • Belleville disk spring
  • Curved disk spring
  • Slotted disk spring
  • Wave disk spring

Application of disk spring

  • Clutch plate
  • High pressure valve
  • Brake assembly
  • Valve actuators
  • Live loaded joints

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Spring Materials

Below list shows common materials used for spring manufacturing. Those are either converted to wire form or strip form before coiled into a spring

  • Stainless steel
  • Alloy steel
  • Titanium
  • Phosphor Bronze
  • High carbon spring wire ( Hard drawn)
  • Beryllium copper

Advantages of springs

  • Provides excellent shock absorbing capability
  • Can be used as an alternative to a battery to store energy ( Example: Mechanical Watch)
  • Useful for pivoting, locking, latching, holding multiple parts
  • Helps in maintaining product stability
  • Reduce excessive vibration between parts
  • Reduce friction between parts

Disadvantages of Springs

  • Expensive machinery required for manufacturing
  • Losses the spring effect over the period of time


Springs are used everywhere. Be it in your kid’s ten-dollar toy or your thousands of dollars car. Springs are so essential part of the mechanical industry that every product which has moving parts has springs. So having an idea about spring is a must. Don’t you feel so?

I hope, I could able to give you all the basic insights on springs. As and when you actually work on spring design, you might be able to learn in-depth about spring. But as a casual user, I believe this basic knowledge about spring is more than enough.

Did I miss anything or you have anything to share or correct? Please do write to me your queries or questions in the comment section and I will be happy to reply.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different types of springs?

There are mainly three types of spring. Those are further divided into multiple sub types
1. Helical Spring
2. Leaf Spring
3. Disk Spring

What is the use of spring?

1. To absorb shock
2. To reduce friction and vibration
3. To store energy and release when required
4. To ease in locking, pivoting, holding etc

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